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Novel Anticancer Dimeric Naphthoquinones from Diospyros lotus having Anti- Tumor, Anti-Inflammatory and Multidrug Resistance Reversal Potential: In Vitro, In Vivo and In Silico Evidence

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 15 ]


Abdur Rauf*, Ajmal Khan*, Tareq Abu-Izneid, Fahad A. Alhumaydhi, Saud Bawazeer, Muslim Raza, Haroon Khan, Seema Patel and Ahmed Al-Harrasi*   Pages 2089 - 2097 ( 9 )


Background: Cancer being a genetically heterogeneous and complex disease and the available therapies are not very effective, rendering them the predominant cause of mortality across the world. The discovery of new anticancer drugs with higher efficacy and milder side effects is a great challenge for health professionals.

Objective: The current study focused on the anticancer potential of two known dimeric napthoquiones, diospyrin (1) and 8-hydroxydiospyrin (2) isolated from the roots of Diospyros lotus.

Methods: In vitro Epstein-Barr-Virus (EVA) an early antigen activation assay was used to evaluate the antitumor potential of tested compounds followed by a two-stage carcinogenesis assay on mouse skin for anti-carcinogenic effect. Compounds were also assessed for their multidrug resistance reversal potential. The in vitro heatinduced protein denaturation assay was used for the anti-inflammatory effect of the tested compounds.

Results: Both compounds evoked marked cytotoxic activity with IC50 of 47.40 and 36.91 ppm, respectively. In Epstein-Barr-Virus (EVA) early antigen activation assay compounds 1 and 2 showed IC50 values of 426 ppm and 412 ppm, respectively. The tested compounds showed 60% survival rate of the lymphoblastoid Raji cells at a concentration of 1000 (mol / ratio 32 pmol TPA). In a two-stage carcinogenesis assay on mouse skin, both compounds significantly delayed the formation of papillomas on mouse skin. Compound 1 showed 50% effect at 14th week, whereas compound 2 exerted the same effect at 13th week, while both provoked 100% effect at 20th week. Both compounds significantly attenuated thermal-induced protein denaturation with EC50 values of 298 and 264 μg/mL, respectively. The dimeric napthoquiones were evaluated for their effects on the reversion of Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) cell lines mediated by P-glycoprotein using rhodamine 123 dye-based exclusion screening test on human mdr1 gene transfected thymic lymphoma L5178 cell line. The compounds 1 and 2 exhibited promising MDR reversal effect in a dose-dependent manner against mouse T-lymphoma cell line. Docking results also showed that both compounds have good docking statistics as compared with standard.

Conclusion: Both the compounds demonstrated marked anti-tumor, anti-carcinogenic, and MDR reversal effects with significant attenuation of thermal-induced denaturation of the protein. These compounds may explain the traditional uses of D. lotus which might be effective anticancer agents.


Diospyros lotus, diospyrin, 8-hydroxydiospyrin, anti-tumor, anti-carcinogenic, naphthoquinones.


Department of Chemistry, University of Swabi, Anbar-23561, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center, University of Nizwa, Birkat-ul-Mouz 616, Nizwa, Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University, Al Ain Campus, Al Ain, Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, P.O.Box 42, State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, East Road of North Third Ring, Chao Yang District, Beijing, Department of Pharmacy, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200, Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, San Diego, 92182, CA, Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center, University of Nizwa, Birkat-ul-Mouz 616, Nizwa

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