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Benzisothiazolone Derivatives Exhibit Cytotoxicity in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Cells through NF-ҡB Inhibition and are Synergistic with Doxorubicin and Etoposide

[ Vol. 20 , Issue. 6 ]

Author(s):

Natarajan Nandakumar, Pushparathinam Gopinath, Jacob Gopas* and Kannoth M. Muraleedharan*   Pages 715 - 723 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background: The authors investigated the NF-ҡB inhibitory role of three Benzisothiazolone (BIT) derivatives (1, 2 and 3) in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma cells (L428) which constitutively express activated NF-κB. All three compounds showed dose-dependent NF-κB inhibition (78.3, 70.7 and 34.6%) in the luciferase reporter gene assay and were found cytotoxic at IC50 values of 3.3μg/ml, 4.35μg/ml and 13.8μg/ml, respectively by the XTT assay. BIT 1and BIT 2 (but not BIT 3) suppressed both NF-κB subunits p50 and p65 in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, BIT 1 showed a moderate synergistic effect with the standard chemotherapy drugs etoposide and doxorubicin, whereas BIT 2 and 3 showed a moderate additive effect to antagonistic effect. Cisplatin exhibited an antagonist effect on all the compounds tested under various concentrations, except in the case of 1.56μg/ml of BIT 3 with 0.156μg/ml of cisplatin. The compounds also inhibited the migration of adherent human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) in vitro. We conclude that especially BIT 1 and BIT 2 have in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities, which can be further investigated for future potential therapeutic use.

Methods: Inspired by the electrophilic sulfur in Nuphar alkaloids, monomeric and dimeric benzisothiazolones were synthesized from dithiodibenzoic acid and their NF-ҡB inhibitory role was explored. NF-κB inhibition and cytotoxicity of the synthesized derivatives were studied using luciferase reporter gene assay and XTTassay. Immunocytochemistry studies were performed using L428 cells. Cell migration assay was conducted using the A549 cell line. L428 cells were used to conduct combination studies and the results were plotted using CompuSyn software.

Results: Benzisothiazolone derivatives exhibited cytotoxicity in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma cells through NF-ҡB inhibition. Potent compounds showed suppression of both NF-κB subunits p50 and p65 in a concentrationdependent manner, both in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts. Combination studies suggest that benzisothiazolone derivatives possess a synergistic effect with etoposide and doxorubicin. Furthermore, the compounds also inhibited the migration of A549 cells.

Conclusion: Benzisothiazolones bearing one or two electrophilic sulfur atoms as part of the heterocyclic framework exhibited cytotoxicity in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma cells through NF-κB inhibition. In addition, these derivatives also exhibited a synergistic effect with etoposide and doxorubicin along with the ability to inhibit the migration of A549 cells. Our study suggests that BIT-based new chemical entities could lead to potential anticancer agents.

Keywords:

Benzisothiazolones, NF-ҡB, combination studies, anticancer, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, etoposide.

Affiliation:

The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences and Oncology Laboratory, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Department of Chemistry, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamilnadu, The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences and Oncology Laboratory, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu



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