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Synthesis of New N1Arylpiperazine Substituted Xanthine Derivatives and Evaluation of their Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Lily Andonova, Iva Valkova, Dimitrina Zheleva-Dimitrova, Maya Georgieva*, Georgi Momekov and Alexander Zlatkov   Pages 528 - 537 ( 10 )

Abstract:


Background: Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases in 2012, with most of the clinically used drugs being ineffective. Methylxanthines have raised more interest in research on modifying their structure because of their diverse biological activity. In addition, the piperazine nucleus is one of the most important heterocycles exhibiting remarkable pharmacological activities.

Methods: The structure of the obtained compounds was characterized and elucidated by IR, 1H and 13C NMR and LCMS spectral analysis. The purity of the substances was proven by corresponding melting points and elemental analysis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by four common methods – DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and lipid peroxidation assay. The cytotoxic effects of the tested series were evaluated using the standard MTT-dye reduction assay on three tumour cell lines.

Results: A series of new xanthine derivatives comprising an arylpiperazine moiety at N1 were synthesized. The cytotoxicity against human T-cell leukemia cell SKW-3, human acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 and human Bcell precursor leukemia cell REH was evaluated. The relationship between the structure and citotoxicity of the compounds was investigated by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis and the important structural parameters were drawn.

Conclusion: The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by compound 6c. The highest cytotoxic effect was observed for compound 6f. It was found that cytotoxicity against SKW-3 depends on the electron density distribution in the structures. Branching of the molecular skeleton and introduction of heteroatoms like fluorine and sulfur in the structures also significantly improved the antiproliferative activity of the compounds.

Keywords:

Aralkylpiperazine, theobromine, antioxidant effect, cytotoxicity, QSAR, leukemia cell SKW-3.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University-Sofia, 2 , Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University-Sofia, 2 , Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Dunav Street, 1000 Sofia, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University-Sofia, 2 , Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University-Sofia, 2 , Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University-Sofia, 2

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