Antonio Marra, Cristina R. Ferrone, Celeste Fusciello, Giosue Scognamiglio, Soldano Ferrone, Stefano Pepe, Francesco Perri and Francesco Sabbatino* Pages 166 - 181 ( 16 )
Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer characterized by poor prognosis and high mortality. The development of targeted agents based on the discovery of driver mutations as well as the implementation of checkpoint inhibitor-based immunotherapy represents a major breakthrough in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. However, in both cases the development of drug resistance and immune escape mechanisms as well as the lack of predictive biomarkers limits their extraordinary clinical efficacy. In this article, we summarize the available therapeutic options for patients with metastatic melanoma, outline the mechanisms implicated in the resistance to both targeted agents and immunotherapy, discuss potential predictive biomarkers and outline future therapeutic approaches under investigation.
Melanoma, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, immune checkpoint molecules, PD-1, PD-L1, BRAF inhibitor resistance, immunotherapy resistance, predictive biomarkers.
Department of Medical Oncology, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, Department of Medicine and Surgery, , Dipartimento di Patologia Diagnostica e di Laboratorio: SC di Anatomia Patologica e Citopatologia, Istituto Nazionale Tumori IRCCS Fondazione , Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, Department of Medicine and Surgery, , Medical Oncology Unit POC SS Annunziata, Taranto, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114